What are the diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti?

What are the diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti?

The mosquito Aedes aegypti , initially a wild insect, found much survival ease in the urban environment. After all, cities offer everything necessary for the growth of populations of this mosquito: shelter, vegetation, water and blood.

This is also a species with great capacity of environmental adaptation. As a result, it settled quickly in all regions of Brazil, in an uncontrolled manner.

As the Dengue virus, a mosquito contact with people caused the spread of the disease. As a result, epidemics began to appear in several municipalities, fast demanding planning and intense action of the health sector.

But Dengue is not the only disease that mosquitoes can cause. Follow this post and find out what are the diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti:

Dengue

Dengue is a disease caused by a virus which is transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti . The mosquito is contaminated with the virus when it bites a person who already had the disease.

Therefore, under natural conditions, the mosquito is not of Dengue virus carrier. He is contaminated by biting a sick person whose blood contains the virus.

When the infected mosquito, or virus carrier in his own body bites a healthy person, can contaminate it. Thus, the disease is being propagated by several mosquitoes that have bitten a sick person and after a sound.

Symptoms of the disease

The Dengue virus can infect a person and does not show any symptoms, depending on their health condition . When the immune system (the body’s defense) is strengthened, their own immune cells destroy the virus. Thus, the disease does not progress and the person does not manifest symptoms.

On the other hand, less resistant conditions, various symptoms may appear by action of the virus effect. Among the main, they can be related:

  • high temperature (around 39 ° C) suddenly;
  • headache (headache) intense;
  • myalgia (muscular pain) intense;
  • arthralgia (joint pain);
  • pain retro orbital (behind the eye);
  • nausea;
  • vomiting;
  • red spots on the skin.

These are the most common symptoms. However, as there can be no manifestation, may also be present combinations of these symptoms.

In general, the first 3 (high fever, headache and muscle pain) characterize most cases of Dengue.

Zika

This disease is caused by Zika virus that can be transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti , as well as other mosquito, Aedes albopictus , both very similar. Transmission mechanisms by mosquitoes are the same as those observed for Dengue.

The first cases of the disease in Brazil were reported in 2015 in Rio Grande do Norte and Bahia. In addition to mosquitoes, the disease can be conveyed during pregnancy , the pregnant woman going to the fetus. In these cases, there may be the development of microcephaly and other cases of malformation in the baby.

There may also be transmission through sex when one partner is infected, even if they do not show symptoms.

Symptoms of Zika

The Zika may or may not have symptoms. Its intensity is usually lower, that is, the symptoms are milder than in infection by the dengue virus. The most common are:

  • conjunctivitis (inflammation in the eye );
  • itching in the body;
  • red spots on the skin;
  • lymph node enlargement (swelling sides of the neck);
  • mild fever (around 38 ° C);
  • headache (headache) moderate;
  • myalgia (muscular pain) moderate;
  • swollen joints;
  • vomiting;
  • cough.

The first 3 are the most common symptoms. However, Zika is an asymptomatic (without symptoms) in most cases. This means that the person may have been carrying the virus of the disease and not know who went through this experience.

Chikungunya

The Chikungunya is caused by the virus of the same name. Just as Zika, the disease is transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti and its close relative, the Aedes albopictus . Also in this case, transmission mechanisms are the same as those observed for other diseases transmitted by these mosquitos.

The chikungunya means “that which bends” in the local language of Tanzania, where the first cases were diagnosed, as a reference to the pains taken from the patient’s position. In Brazil, the disease appeared in the year 2014.

Symptoms of the disease

The Chikungunya is very similar to Dengue. However, its symptoms can be even more intense:

  • high temperature (around 39 ° C) suddenly;
  • myalgia (muscular pain) intense;
  • arthralgia (joint pain) intense;
  • swollen joints;
  • headache (headache) moderate;
  • conjunctivitis (eye inflammation);
  • red spots on the skin;
  • nausea;
  • vomiting.

The first 4 related symptoms are the most common. The Chikungunya differs from Dengue, mainly cause very severe pain in the joints and that persist and may remain for weeks, months and in some cases, years.

Yellow fever

The Yellow Fever is the fourth important disease transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti  in urban areas and by the mosquito Haemagogus in forest regions. There is no natural infection Registration Aedes albopictus virus Yellow Fever.

Although it is the same disease, there are two types of Yellow Fever : a wild, occurring in regions of forests and that affects mainly primates (monkeys), and the urban, which takes place in the cities among humans. However, when a person enters wild regions, it may be contaminated by viruses transmitted by local mosquitoes and bring these viruses to the city.

Symptoms of the disease

  • high temperature (around 39 ° C) suddenly;
  • headache (headache) Sudden;
  • chills;
  • tiredness;
  • back pains;
  • myalgia (muscular pain);
  • nausea;
  • vomiting
  • jaundice (yellowing of the skin and mucous membranes which gives its name to the disease).

The first 4 are the most common symptoms. Jaundice, a symptom that generated the name of the disease occurs only in severe cases of the disease and is usually rare.

The Yellow Fever is a disease for which there is vaccination . It is especially important for people who will enter forest areas or areas of occurrence of the disease. Its application should provide about 10 days prior to potential exposure to mosquitoes for immunization to occur.

Tips to prevent contamination

For four diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti , as not to contaminate, essentially, it is prevent being bitten by mosquitoes.

With the exception of yellow fever, these diseases do not have vaccine. Thus, the main care reside in controlling the mosquito population and reducing exposure possibilities. For this, the top tips are:

  • not leave any uncovered container or structure that could hold water;
  • keep clean the roof gutters;
  • keep clean the gardens;
  • washing with a sponge or the bushing pet water container, at least every 3 days;
  • put sand in potted plants of the dishes;
  • install millimeter window screens;
  • use mosquito netting in the cradle babies;
  • guide all at home, at school or at work.

These precautions are especially important for pregnant women, because of the risk that exposure to Zika virus can bring to the baby . In addition to these precautions, it is important to maintain health day with a healthy diet , physical activity and a good intake of water.

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